Literature review on malaria in pregnancy

Malaria in Pregnancy: A Literature Review

this could be due to the hormonal, immunological and hematological changes of pregnancy.. social values, perception, and attitudes towards pregnancy and pregnancy-related risks. studying these interactions may help to improve the delivery of adequate interventions and thus contribute to reaching the abuja malaria summit target of at least 60% of pregnant women adequately protected against malaria infection and its consequences. of complications of malaria may be difficult due to the various physiological changes of pregnancy. furthermore, it is necessary to determine whether pregnant women's susceptibility to anaemia is commonly known, and if people realize the link between anaemia during pregnancy and malaria. facilities are public spaces, where women unavoidably reveal their pregnancy to other community members. It is estimated that 10,000 women and 200,000 infants die as a result of malaria infection during pregnancy; severe maternal anemia, « complications in p., the recommended intervention strategies for preventing malaria during pregnancy are intermittent preventive treatment (ipt) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and insecticide-treated bed nets [4]. endemic areas symptomatic malaria in the neonate is rare, despite a high incidence of maternal parasitemia and placental malaria, as maternally derived igg and the high proportion of fetal hemoglobin inhibit parasite development. the problems in the new born include low birth weight, prematurity, iugr, malaria illness and mortality. the continued public health burden of malaria is due to a combination of factors, including:●increasing resistance of malarial parasites to chemotherapy●increasing resistance of the anopheles mosquito vector to insecticides. congenital malaria usually manifests between the second and eighth weeks of life (as early as 1 day or delayed by weeks or months)[10] with symptoms such as fever, anorexia, lethargy, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly etc. there are only a few alterations with regard to antimalarials used as a preventive rather than treatment measure. due to malaria is more common and severe between 16-29 weeks.

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however, malaria-related symptoms can be easily confused with pregnancy-related symptoms. changes of pregnancy, reduced synthesis of immunoglobulins, reduced function of reticulo endothelial system are the causes for immunosuppression in pregnancy. acute pulmonary edema, hypoglycemia and anemia are more common in pregnancy. of labour:Anemia, hypoglycemia, pulmonary oedema, and secondary infections due to malaria in full term pregnancy lead to problems for both the mother and the foetus. community knowledge about the malaria–mosquito link can be considered fundamental in determining the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, prompt and effective treatment depends on illness recognition. malaria in pregnancy models: factors influencing malaria in pregnancywe propose two models for studying the social science aspects of malaria in pregnancy: the “malaria in pregnancy treatment model” and the “malaria in pregnancy prevention model” (see figures 1 and 2). even in gender-oriented literature, women are depicted as “mothers and caretakers of children” rather than as women suffering from malaria. another important reason for avoiding public exposure of their pregnancy during the first months is the fear of sorcery-related harm to mother or foetus [20]. however, complications seen in nonimmune adults have not been reported in congenital malaria. in pregnant women the morbidity due to malaria includes anemia, fever illness, hypoglycemia, cerebral malaria, pulmonary edema, puerperal sepsis and mortality can occur from severe malaria and haemorrhage. acknowledge the reviewers brigit obrist and imelda bates for their valuable input. manifestations of malaria are more common in pregnancy, particularly in the 2nd half of pregnancy. is more common in pregnancy compared to the general population. for instance, in places where malaria is associated with mosquitoes and rainfall [9,10], perceived susceptibility of contracting malaria seems to be strongly related to mosquito density and the rainy season [11].

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The Malaria in Pregnancy Library: a bibliometric review | Malaria

year, 50 million women living in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant; one-half of these women live in Africa. is another complication of malaria that is peculiarly more common in pregnancy. in areas where malaria is endemic, 20-40% of all babies born may have a low birth weight. vivax, but mixed infections with more than one malarial species also occur. studies should focus on (1) the perceived severity of malaria for the mother, with emphasis on knowledge regarding anaemia and maternal mortality risk; (2) the perceived severity of malaria for the foetus, and the recognition of the risk for miscarriage; and (3) the perceived severity of the illness for the newborn, including the association of malaria with low birth weight and increased vulnerability to other illnesses. a (1992) perception of risk for malaria and schistosomiasis in rural malawi. immuno suppression and loss of acquired immunity to malaria could be the causes. to the hormonal and immunological changes, the parasitemia tends to be 10 times higher and as a result, malaria tends to be more severe in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant population. the specific topic of malaria in pregnancy has received little attention in social science literature, with only some 20 articles explicitly integrating social science aspects [1–3]. (paradoxically, fully effective antimalaria immunity is transferred to the child! chondroitin sulfate, congenital malaria, malaria in pregnancy, placenta and malaria. in pregnancy being more severe, also turns out to be more fatal, the mortality being double (13 %) in pregnant compared to the non-pregnant population (6. and to add to the woes, malaria itself suppresses immune response. anti malarials are contra indicated in pregnancy and some may cause severe adverse effects.

Malaria in pregnancy: a literature review.

Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi

year, 50 million women living in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant; one-half of these women live in africa [1]. all the placental tissues exhibit malarial pigments (with or even without parasites). however, other non-medical direct and indirect costs are essential to understanding the total costs of a malaria episode.) various hypotheses have been put forth to explain the pathophysiology of malaria in pregnancy. the putative ligand expressed by the parasite is pfcsa-l and it has been found to be antigenically conserved among global cases of maternal malaria, suggesting a unique subpopulation of p.., money for covering transport costs) are in the hands of their husbands, who possibly have other priorities, perceived necessity and action do not correspond, presenting a similar situation to that described for childhood malaria [14]. these symptoms of hypoglycemia may be easily confused with cerebral malaria.: the physiologic changes of pregnancy pose special problems in management of malaria. regard to malaria, perceived susceptibility is related to two factors: (1) the perceived propensity to develop clinical malaria due to idiosyncratic features of the person (pregnant women, children, immune-compromised persons); and (2) the perceived level of exposure. therefore, in all pregnant women with falciparum malaria, particularly those receiving quinine, blood sugar should be monitored every 4-6 hours. this is because, all the symptoms of hypoglycemia are also caused by malaria viz. in 2nd half of pregnancy, there may be more frequent paroxysms due to immunosuppression.. vivax malaria in pregnancy:There are very few documented studies on p. congenital malaria: the least known consequence of malaria in pregnancy.

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Malaria and Pregnancy – Malaria Site

vivaxmiscarriagepreterm birthlow birth weightperinatal mortalitycongenital infectionmaternal mortalitytreatment of malaria and management of pregnancyinformation for patientssummary and recommendationsreferences. the malaria in pregnancy prevention model: relevant factors for the utilization of ancs and acceptance of ipt. a patient may present with complications of malaria or they may develop suddenly. these perceptions are based on (1) cultural models of the physiology of pregnancy and foetal growth, including the symptoms of “normal” pregnancy and (2) social values concerning “appropriate” behaviour, e. pregnant women constitute the main adult risk group for malaria and 80% of deaths due to malaria in africa occur in pregnant women and children below 5 years. in malariaclinical manifestations of malaria in nonpregnant adults and childrendiagnosis of malariahiv and malariamalaria in endemic areas: epidemiology, prevention, and controlpathogenesis of malariapatient education: malaria (the basics)prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnant womenprevention of malaria infection in travelerstreatment of severe malariatreatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children. therefore to prevent the relapse of vivax malaria from reactivation of hypnozoites in the liver, suppressive chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine is recommended. on existing knowledge from social science work on malaria, the authors propose two models for studying social science aspects of malaria in pregnancy. in addition, certain drugs are contra indicated in pregnancy or may cause more severe adverse effects. in view of the increased fluid volume in pregnancy, it is better to transfuse packed cells than whole blood. the risk of malaria infection during pregnancy is greater and can result in maternal death and spontaneous abortion in up to 60% of cases. have shown that malaria is often not perceived as severe, but rather as a mild, self-limiting illness which does not require immediate treatment [7,8]. (1996) local terminology for febrile illnesses in bagamoyo district, tanzania, and its impact on the design of a community based malaria control programme. (2004) use of antenatal care services and intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women in blantyre district, malawi.

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Overview of malaria in pregnancy

since pregnancy is a family matter, both dimensions must be understood in the framework of social organisation of procreation, and of gender and kinship ideologies. year, 50 million women living in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant; one-half of these women live in africa [1]. malaria: congenital malaria due to transplacental or peripartal infection of the fetus is being increasingly reported in has been reported in 8–33% of pregnancies from both malaria-endemic and nonendemic areas. – 1: loss of antimalarial immunity is consistent with the general immunosupression of pregnancy viz; reduced lymphoproliferative response, sustained by elevated levels of serum cortisol. It is estimated that 10,000 women and 200,000 infants die as a result of malaria infection during pregnancy; severe maternal anemia, Screen reader users, click here to load entire articlethis page uses javascript to progressively load the article content as a user scrolls. regard to access to ancs, social network support has two important dimensions: (1) social support: when giving advice to the pregnant woman; participating in pregnancy rituals where they exist; accompanying the woman to antenatal services etc.-malaria and intensity of transmission: clinical presentation and severity of malaria in pregnancy differ in areas of high transmission and low transmission due to differences in the level of immunity. it can develop suddenly, in case of severe malaria with high grades of parasitemia. this results in loss of acquired immunity to malaria, making the pregnant more prone for malaria. these models are a conglomerate of different psycho-social and socio-behavioural models, based on our own field research experience and on a literature review. on already existing knowledge from social science work on malaria, we propose two models for studying social science aspects of malaria in pregnancy. it is estimated that 10,000 women and 200,000 infants die as a result of malaria infection during pregnancy; severe maternal anemia, prematurity, and low birth weight contribute to more than half of these deaths. review current through:This topic last updated:Fri jul 29 00:00:00 gmt+00:00 2016. the continued public health burden of malaria is due to a combination of factors, including:●increasing resistance of malarial parasites to chemotherapy●increasing resistance of the anopheles mosquito vector to insecticides.

Malaria in Pregnancy: A Literature Review

of malaria in pregnancy should be energetic, anticipatory and careful. have proposed two models which encompass the different social factors that influence health-seeking behaviour for malaria in pregnant women and demonstrate how they are related to each other. h, harpham t, snow rw (1995) child malaria treatment practices among mothers in kenya. (1994) seasonal variation in the perceived risk of malaria: implications for the promotion of insecticide-treated nets. similarly, ipt delivered through ancs might encourage or discourage further attendance and influence women's perception of contracting malaria in pregnancy. these factors necessarily lead to two research questions regarding perceived susceptibility to malaria during pregnancy: (1) whether pregnant women are considered particularly susceptible to malaria and (2) when are they perceived to be more susceptible (i. pre existing iron and folate deficiency can exacerbate the anemia of malaria and vice versa. severe falciparum malaria in full term pregnancy carries a very high mortality. fortunately, interest in social science studies on malaria in pregnancy is slowly awakening. vivax, but mixed infections with more than one malarial species also occur. perceived risks are related to (1) perceived iatrogenic effects of treatment; (2) perceived side effects of antimalarials; and (3) perceived risks of under- and over-dosage of antimalarials. sequestration of mp in the placenta and long standing placental malaria occur and peripheral blood may be negative for mp.: in developing countries, where malaria is most common, anemia is a common feature of pregnancy. h (1993) mother's definition and treatment of childhood malaria on the kenyan coast [phd thesis].

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malaria in pregnancy is a priority area in roll back malaria strategy. the malaria in pregnancy treatment model: relevant factors for treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in pregnant women.: complications tend to be more common and more severe in pregnancy. falciparum malaria can run a turbulent and dramatic course in pregnant women. it may be absent or small in 2nd half of pregnancy. in the extended version of this paper (see supplementary information), we complement the two models with a literature review about recognition of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy, utilisation of antenatal clinics, acceptance of chemoprophylaxis and ipt, and adolescent pregnancy, and we provide further theoretical references about basic models used in health-seeking behaviour. it is estimated that 10,000 women and 200,000 infants die as a result of malaria infection during pregnancy; severe maternal anemia, prematurity, and low birth weight contribute to more than half of these deaths. the strategy for management of malaria in pregnant population in areas of high transmission include intermittent treatment and use of insecticide treated bednets. in pregnancy is a obstetric, social and medical problem requiring multidisciplinary and multidimensional solution. low birth weight can occur even in cases of treated malaria; however, silent malaria rather rare. possible risk factors for congenital malaria at a tertiary care hospital in sagamu, ogun state, south-west nigeria. of vivax malaria in pregnancy:In pregnancy, use of primaquine is contraindicated. martin s, seidlein l, deen jl, pinder m, walraven g, greenwood b (2001) community perceptions of a mass administration of an antimalarial drug combination in the gambia. diagnosis of congenital malaria can be confirmed by a smear for mp from cord blood or heel prick, anytime within a week after birth (or even later if post-partum, mosquito-borne infection is not likely).

Malaria in Pregnancy: A Literature Review

Malaria in Pregnancy: What Can the Social Sciences Contribute?

year, 50 million women living in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant; one-half of these women live in Africa. transfusion: exchange transfusion is indicated in cases of severe falciparum malaria to reduce the parasite load. we believe that these adapted models comprehensively and holistically describe the most relevant factors involved in malaria and pregnancy. infections (uti and pneumonias) and algid malaria (septicaemic shock) are more common in pregnancy due to immunosuppression. ha, jones c (2004) a critical review of behavioural issues related to malaria control in sub-saharan africa: what contributions have social scientists made? a preexisting enlarged spleen may regress in size in pregnancy. against malaria in pregnancy: although a general malaria vaccine appears to be a distant possibility, there is much hope for a vaccine against placental malaria. for the foetus:Malaria in pregnancy is detrimental to the foetus. therefore, careful monitoring of maternal and foetal parameters is extremely important and pregnant women with severe malaria are better managed in an intensive care unit. we hope that they help to inspire future works in the malaria social science literature, particularly in the under-researched field of malaria and pregnancy. research on and implementation of malaria control intervention for pregnant women have predominantly ignored community responses or, when considered, they have centred on single, isolated factors usually with the aim of designing “culturally sensitive” information, education, and communication messages. of malaria in pregnancy:Management of malaria in pregnancy involves the following three aspects and equal importance should be attached to all the three. falciparum malaria can pose problems for the foetus, with the latter being more serious. s (2004) the economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

these pro-inflammatory cytokines account for the pathology of maternal malaria: elevated levels of tnf- α are associated with severe maternal anemia; symptomatology of malaria and localized cytokine elevation contributes to adverse pregnancy outcomes. it may be associated with mild anaemia and increased risk of low birth weight and not associated with abortion, stillbirth or a reduction of the duration of pregnancy. some of these patients may develop septicaemic shock, the so called ‘algid malaria’. is important to study how decisions for malaria treatment seeking in pregnant women are made, to understand the intra-household hierarchies and the criteria implied in decision-making. of malaria in pregnancy:Anemia: malaria can cause or aggravate anemia. pulmonary oedema:Acute pulmonary oedema is also a more common complication of malaria in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant population. however, this does not explain the diminished susceptibility to malaria experienced by multigravid women. in africa, perinatal mortality due to malaria is at about 1500/day. 12–15 in figure 2—availability, accessibility, time loss, and cost factors—are similar to those mentioned in the treatment model (figure 1), with the difference that they directly relate to ancs rather than to malaria treatment and perceived adequacy of curative care.[11-15] on the other, infants born to nonimmune mothers with malaria at the time of labour may develop parasitemia and illness in the first few weeks of life. transplacental spread of the infection to the foetus can result in congenital malaria. these problems are more common in first and second pregnancies as the parasitemia level decreases with increasing number of pregnancy. anemia may even be the presenting feature of malaria and therefore all cases of anemia should be tested for mp. pathophysiology of malaria in pregnancy is greatly due to the altered immunity and availability of a new organ called placenta in pregnancy.

: ribera jm, hausmann-muela s, d'alessandro u, grietens kp (2007) malaria in pregnancy: what can the social sciences contribute? the strategy involves measures to avoid malaria by itms/chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases. review current through:This topic last updated:Fri jul 29 00:00:00 gmt+00:00 2016. malariae may cause a disproportionately higher number of congenital malaria cases due to its longer persistence in the host. we have developed these models for malaria in pregnancy because it is in this field that social sciences are particularly neglected. malarials in pregnancy:All trimesters: chloroquine; quinine; artesunate / artemether / arteether. no publication was found that explores the way pregnant women distinguish malaria signs from general malaise and other common symptoms (e. – 4: pregnant women display a bias towards type- 2 cytokines and are therefore susceptible to diseases requiring type 1 responses for protection like tb, malaria, leishmaniasis etc. in malariaclinical manifestations of malaria in nonpregnant adults and childrendiagnosis of malariahiv and malariamalaria in endemic areas: epidemiology, prevention, and controlpathogenesis of malariapatient education: malaria (the basics)prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnant womenprevention of malaria infection in travelerstreatment of severe malariatreatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children. a dramatic breakdown of acquired immunity occurs in pregnancy, especially in primigravidae. falciparum has the unique ability of cytoadhesion and adhesion molecules such as cd36 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may be involved in the development of severe malaria in children and non-pregnant adults. the physiological changes of pregnancy and the pathological changes due to malaria have a synergistic effect on the course of each other, thus making the life difficult for the mother, the child and the treating physician. vivaxmiscarriagepreterm birthlow birth weightperinatal mortalitycongenital infectionmaternal mortalitytreatment of malaria and management of pregnancyinformation for patientssummary and recommendationsreferences. further key factor is the perception of pregnancy and pregnancy-related risks.

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