Special Forum

In addition to these unmistakable economic pressures, there are other ways of coercing or interfering in other countries’ internal as well as external affairs. This may include direct or indirect diplomatic pressure over some accidents and incidents; information dissemination and manipulation of media to form pro-Chinese public opinion and understanding (not necessarily fake news), diverse public diplomacy activities at various levels and fields to create a favorable environment for China; interfering and exerting control over academic activities; and using financial support to breed pro-Chinese opinions. These activities have become much more widespread and sophisticated in recent years. In other words, nowadays, China has more tools in its tool box. It can use any tool in different ways: bluntly, softly, or sharply. Here I examine how China has used different methods to interfere in South Korean affairs.

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